A Free and Open History of Free and Open Source Software
Almost twenty years ago Richard Stallman quit MIT and founded the Free Software Foundation. Fifteen years ago Michael Lesk published "Can UNIX Survive Secret Source Code?" in Computing Systems. Five years ago a brainstorming session in Palo Alto led to the coining of the term "open source."
Where did these powerful notions come from, where are they now, and what does the future hold? The ECHO Project has compiled an extensive set of resources on the history of free and open source software--the movements, the people, the code. In their spirit we open this site and its contents to all visitors. Feel free to add your own resources, add your views on the articles, books, and sites listed, and tell your own story of how you got started using or developing free and open source software.
Resources on the History of Free and Open Source Software
All Things Hackish
and Geekish, A Bibliography.
Aronwitz, Stanley, Barbara Martinsons, Michale Menser, and Rich Jennifer, eds.
Technoscience and Cyberculture. New York: Routledge, 1995.
Barbrook, Richard. Media Freedom: the contradictions of communications in
the age of modernity. London: Pluto, 1995.
Barbrook, Richard and Andy Cameron. The
Californian Ideology .
Bell, Daniel. The Coming of the Post-Industrial Society. New
York: Basic Books, 1973.
Brunvand, Eric. “Hacker
Brzezinski, Zbigniew. Between Two Ages: America's role in the Technetronic
Era. New York: Viking, 1970.
Chalmers, Rachel. “Code
Critic.” salon.com (30 November 1999).
Chalmers, Rachel. “Even
better than Slapdash?” salon.com (18 July 2000).
Coleman, E. Gabriella. "Hackers
and Hacking: Culture, Practice, and History." Syllabus.
Coleman, E. Gabriella. “The
Politics of Survival and Prestige: Hacker Identity and the Global Production
of an Operating System.” Master’s Thesis.
De Sola Pool, Ithiel. Technologies of Freedom. Harvard: Belknap
DiBona, Chris, Sam Ockman, and Mark Stone, eds. Open
Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly,
Fadia, Ankit. The
Unofficial Guide to Ethical Hacking. Boston: Premier Press, 2002.
Fisher, Michael. “Worlding Cyberspace: Toward a Critical Ethnography
in Time, Space, and Theory.” In Critical Anthropology Now: Unexpected
Contextes, Shifting Constituencies, Changing Agendas, ed. G. Marcus,
245-304. Santa Fe: SAR Press, 1999.
Gabriels, Richard P. Patterns of Software: Tales from the Software Community.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Ghosh, Rishab Aiyer. “Cooking
pot markets: an economic model for the trade in free goods and services on the
Internet.” first monday 3.3 (1998).
Haffner, Katie, and Matthew Lyons. Where Wizards Stay up Late: The Origins
of the Internet. New York: Touchstone Books, 1998.
Hardin, Garrett. “The Tragedy
of the Commons.” Science 162 (1968): 1243-1248.
Harvey, Brian. “Computer
Hacking and Ethics.” 1985 (first version).
Hayes, Dennis. Behind the Silicon Curtain. London: Free Asociation
Hill, Benjamin “Mako”. “The
Geek Shall Inherit the Earth: My Story of Unlearning.”
Hiltzek, Michael. Dealers of Lightning: Xerox PARC and the dawn of the computer
age. New York: Harper Business, 1999.
Himanen, Peka, Linus Torvalds, and Manuel Castells. The
Hacker Ethic and the Spirit of the Information Age. New York:
Random House, 2001.
Katz, Jon. Geeks: How Two Lost Boys Rode the Internet out of Idaho.
New York: Villard, 2000.
Kelly, Kevin. “The Third Culture.” Science 279.5353
(13 February 1998): 992.
Kevin Mitnick Links.
Knuth, Donald. “All
Questions Answered.” Notice of the AMS 49.3 (2002):
Koch, Stefan. “Free/Open Source Bibliography.”
Lessig, Lawrence. Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace. New York:
Basic Books, 2000.
Lessig, Lawrence. The Future of Ideas: The fate of the commons in a connected
world. New York: Random House, 2001.
Levy, Steven. Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Generation. Garden
City, NY: Anchor Press-Doubleday, 1984.
Nissen, Jorgen. “Hackers: Masters of Modernity and Modern Technology.”
In Digital Diversions: Youth Culture in the Age of Multimedia.
London: University College London Press, 1998.
Nora, Simon, and Minc Alain. The Computerisation of Society.
Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press, 1980.
Plant, Sadie. Zeros and Ones: Digital Women + The New Technoculture.
New York: Doubleday, 1997.
Riemens, Patrice. “Some
thoughts on the idea of ‘hacker culture’.” Cyber-Society-Live.
Discussion Group, 31 May 2002.
Rosenberg, Scott. “Mitnick’s
Malice, Shimomura’s Chivalry.” salon.com (30 December
Salus, Peter. A Quarter Century of UNIX. New York: Addison Wesley, 1994.
Software History Center.
Stephenson, Neal. In
the Beginning was the Command Line.
Sterling, Bruce. “The
Hacker Crackdown: Law and Disorder on the Electronic Frontier.” Texinfo
Edition 1.2, February 1994.
Toffler, Alvin. The Third Wave. London: Pan, 1980.
Ullman, Ellen. Close to the machine: Techophilia and its discontents.
San Francisco: City Lights, 1997.
Ullman, Ellen. “Programming Under the Wizard’s Spell.” Harpers
297.1779 (1998): 15-20.
Walker, Christopher. “‘Representative Code’ Language and
Politics in Late 20th Century Software Production.” Masters thesis, University
of Chicago, 2001.
Walker, Richard. “California Rages Against the Dying of the Light.”
New Left Review (January - February 1995).
Wheeler, David A. Why Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS)? Look at the Numbers! Revised 20 January 2003.
Open Source Movement Resources
Augustin, Larry. “Mozilla: Fatal Blow to Open Source.” Linux
Magazine 1.2 (June 1999): 16-20.
Bergquist, Magnus, and Jan Lungberg. “The Power of Gifts: Organizing
Social Relationships in Open Source Communities.” Information Systems
Journal 11.4 (2001): 305-320.
Bezroukov, Nikolai. “Open
Source Software Development as a Special Type of Academic Research (Critique
of Vulgar Raymondism).” first monday 4.10 (October 1999).
Bezroukov, Nikolai. “A
Second Look at the Cathedral and Bazaar.” first monday
4.12 (December 1999).
Bollinger, Terry, Russel Nelson, Karsten M. Self, and Stephen Turnbull. “Open-Source
Methods: Peering Through the Clutter.” IEEE Software 16.4
(July 1999): 8-11.
DeLanda, Manuel. “Open
Source: A Movement in Search of a Philosophy.” presented at the Institute
for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey, 2001.
DeLanda, Manuel. “The Politics of Software: The Case for Open Source.”
Dissent Magazine, New York: Foundation for the Study of Independent Social Ideas
Dempsey, Bert J, Debra Weiss, Paul Jones, and Jane Greenberg. “A
Quantitative Profile of a Community of Open Source Linux Developers.”
School of Information and Library Science University of North Carolina, 1999.
Feller, Joseph, and Brian Fitzgerald. Understanding Open Source Software
Development. London: Addison-Wesley, 2002.
Fielding, Roy. “Shared Leadership in the Apache Conference.” Communications
on the ACM 42.4 (April 1999): 42-43.
Document I.” www.opensource.org.
Document II.” www.opensource.org.
Document III.” www.opensource.org.
Document IV.” www.opensource.org.
Document V.” www.opensource.org.
Document VI.” www.opensource.org.
Document VII.” www.opensource.org.
Document VIII.” www.opensource.org.
McGowan, David. “Legal Implications of Open-Source Software.” University
of Illinois Law Review (2001), 103.
O’Reilly, Tim. “Inventing
the Future.” 2002.
O’Reilly, Tim. “Lessons from Open-Source Software Development.”
Communications of the ACM 42.4 (April 1999): 32-73.
O’Reilly, Tim. “Piracy
is Progressive Taxation, and Other Thoughts on the Evolution of Online Distribution.”
O’Reilly, Tim. “Watching
the "Alpha Geeks": OS X and the Next Big Thing (Lunchtime Keynote at the Apple
Worldwide Developer Conference, May 8, 2002).”O’Reilly Network.
16 May 2002.
Open Source Initiative (OSI).
Pavlicek, Russell, and Robin Miller. Embracing Insanity: Open Source Software
Raymond, Eric. The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source
by an Accidental Revolutionary. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly and
Raymond, Eric. “Eric's Random
Writings.” Eric Steven Raymond's Home
Torvalds, Linus and David Diamond. Just for Fun: The Story of an Accidental
Revolutionary. New York: Harper Collins, 2001.
Free Software Resources
Garfinkel, Simson, Daniel Weise, and Steven Strassmann, eds. The
UNIX-HATERS Handbook. San Manteo, CA: IDG Books Worldwide,1994.
Lesk, Michael. “Can UNIX Survive Secret Source Code?” Computing
Systems 1.2 (Spring 1988): 189-199.
Moffitt, Nick. “Nick Moffitt’s
$7 History of Unix.” crackmonkey.
Ritchie, Dennis M. “The Evolution of the Unix Time-sharing System.”
AT&T Bell Laboratories Technical Journal 63.6, Part 2 (October
Ritchie, Dennis, and K. Thompson. “The
Unix Time-sharing system.” AT&T Bell Laboratories Technical Journal
63.6, part 2 (October 1984): 1577-93.
Ananian, C. Scott. “A
Linux Lament.” salon.com (7 July 1999).
Bollinger, Terry and Peter Beckman. “Linus on the Move.” IEEE
Software 16.1 (January 1999): 30-35.
Browne, Christopher B. “Linux
and Decentralized Development.” first monday 3.3 (March
Hall, Michael, and Brian Proffitt. The
Joy of Linux. Boston: Premier Press, 2002.
Kuwabara, Ko. “Linux:
A Bazaar at the Edge of Chaos.” first monday 5.3 (March
“The Linux Homepage.” Linux
Moody, Glyn. Rebel Code: Linux and the Open Source Revolution.
Cambridge, Mass.: Perseus Publishing, 2001.
Torvalds, Linus. “Interview
with Linus Torvalds: What motivates free software developers?” first
monday 3.3 (March 1998).